UPDATED JUNE 9, 2023
The last thing warehouse workers want to do while loading pallets is pull another pallet off the stack. It requires that they stop what they’re doing and either pull a heavy pallet off the top of a tall column of empty pallets or wait for a forklift to come by and do it for them. As a result, workers have the incentive to load a pallet to its maximum weight limit–and sometimes even over the limit. But overloaded pallets can be dangerous. If a pallet breaks under its load, it could spill thousands of pounds of product onto people and objects nearby. An overloaded pallet is also incredibly inefficient, as it can cause trucks to exceed weight limits, resulting in heavy penalties and more products damaged during transportation, storage, and handling.
Protecting profit margins means knowing exactly how to calculate the maximum weight per pallet. This can vary a great deal depending on the type of pallet, the method that will be used to store it, and the goods shipped on it. Developing a thorough knowledge of pallet types and their different weight capacities will help to reduce your Total Cost of Business (TCOB) over the long term.
The Maximum Weight Per Pallet by Pallet Type
The most commonly given maximum load for pallets for general use is 2,800 pounds according to the CBA standard. This is, in fact, the maximum weight per pallet when it is being loaded into a rack. However, two other weight limits must also be considered: the amount of weight a pallet can hold when supported evenly from below such as sitting on a warehouse floor (static load capacity), and the amount it can hold while being moved (dynamic load capacity). The approximate maximum weight for the three most commonly available 48×40 CBA-spec pallets by material and pallet type are given in the chart below:
|Pallet Type||Edge Rackable Load Capacity||Dynamic Load Capacity||Maximum Static Load Capacity|
|Wood Stringer Pallet||2,500 lbs||2,200 to 2,500 lbs||2,500 lbs|
|Wood Block Pallet||2,800 lbs||4,600 lbs||5,500 lbs|
|Plastic Pallet||2,800 lbs||5,000 lbs||30,000 lbs|
It should be noted that both types of wood pallets–stringer and block pallets–come with a degree of uncertainty about their actual maximum weight limit. Improving cube utilization in the warehouse involves using pallet racking systems to store large volumes of inventory overhead. These racks are so common in the supply chain that many wood pallet makers simply give the edge rackable maximum weight per pallet as the maximum weight a pallet can hold. However, this is a reflection of the maximum capacity of the racking system, not of the pallet. Indeed, many manufacturers of stringer pallets offer a lesser figure of 2,500 pounds as the maximum load that their pallets can hold. It is possible for a company to be in the habit of loading pallets to maximum racking capacity, switch to cheaper pallets without changing their practices, and then suffer increased losses due to pallet failure without ever realizing why.
Wood degrades over time, which affects how much weight a wood pallet can hold.
Wood block pallets, on the other hand, are generally made of with greater mass of wood and robust fasteners. Different outlets put the maximum weight per pallet for wood block pallets at anywhere from 4,000 pounds to 5,500 pounds. However, this figure more likely reflects the maximum dynamic weight per pallet. The maximum static weight per pallet for a wood block pallet is likely to be much higher, but isn’t widely shared due to uncertainty about the exact upper limit.
Wood degrades over time, which affects how much weight a wood pallet can hold. Many wood pallet recycling companies revise down the maximum weight limit in the case of used or reconditioned pallets. In the end, the upper weight limit of a wood pallet, regardless of type, is always going to be inexact. The result is that all loads shipped out on wood pallets will be under the maximum weight per pallet just to build in a margin for safety. However, these considerations don’t apply to plastic pallets, which offer firm figures for the maximum weight per pallet in all use scenarios.
The Maximum Weight Per Pallet for Plastic Pallets Is Consistent
In contrast to their wood competitors, plastic pallets are quite literally engineered at a molecular level out of a non-absorbent material that is resistant to water and microbes. The most obvious result of this is that plastic pallets have a longer useful lifespan and do not degrade. This consistency translates into a more precise maximum weight per pallet that doesn’t change over the course of the pallet’s lifespan. A firm, accurate maximum loading capacity for each scenario allows logistics planners to calculate a load without a built-in safety margin to allow for uncertainty about the pallet. In the case of most supply chains, this means that a plastic pallet can be loaded to as close to the 2,800-pound racking limit as carton dimensions and individual package weight allows if product weight is evenly distributed. As a result, plastic pallets can generally hold extra cartons, and in some cases even extra layers of product. And since plastic pallets can hold more weight in a dynamic or static scenario than wood pallets, they are more versatile overall, such as in cases where loaded pallets are not racked.
Plastic pallets offer a significant reduction to your TCOB that pays off over time.
Plastic pallets are also lighter than wood block pallets and save weight across an entire load. While wood block pallets weigh up to 75 pounds per pallet depending on their build and the moisture content of the wood, high-quality plastic pallets weigh in around 50 pounds every time. The light and consistent weight of plastic pallets allows each trailer to be loaded closer to its maximum weight capacity. Over the long term, this can actually save on the number of trips needed to fulfill your orders. As a result, plastic pallets offer a significant reduction to your TCOB that pays off over time. Their consistent and reliable strength enables logistics personnel to more accurately calculate and load to the maximum weight per pallet every time.
iGPS high-quality pooled plastic pallets allow you to calculate the maximum weight per pallet, whether racked, in motion, or static, to a very tight tolerance. To make the switch, give our team a call at 1-800-884-0225, email a specialist at [email protected], or visit our contact page.